Gravity, Magnetic Field and Geodynamic instruments. The importance of understanding unstable preferential flow processes cannot be overstated considering its relevance to crop irrigation, groundwater recharge , and vadose-zone transport of nutrients and contaminants. Florida and its 20 million residents are putting a terrific strain on the fragile bedrock underneath. For the most part, the wetlands have been drained for agriculture, industry, or urbanization. Its boundary condition can be expressed as. The infiltration capacity depends on the moisture content in the upper soft layer which in turn depends on the rainfall intensity. TRMM has demonstrated that spaceborne rain radars can provide a unique source of information on liquid water and precipitation rate, since the ground-based rain radars used at present have limited coverage over the oceans.
The thin layer of marine sand and clay covering the bedrock is especially permeable, leaving the limestone underneath even more vulnerable and exposed to dissolution. This works by injecting an electrical current into the ground, which travels between a series of metal stakes, placed several feet apart. Karstic rocks are soluble and the aquifers might show exacerbated water table lowering if predicted increases in atmospheric CO 2 contents along with temperature rise induce rapid enlargement of fracture apertures and enlargement in the solution cavities. This occurs when the concentration of water vapour in the soil close to the surface is higher than that in the atmosphere immediately above. Of all the karst terrain, Florida is uniquely susceptible to sinkholes because of its heavy rainfall and years of ocean wash. The rainfall seepage is not only related with precipitation, characteristic of rock and soil, but related with groundwater level, preceding moisture content of slope, vegetation, and so on. This is particularly important for annual crops as they have less time to develop deep and extensive rooting systems than perennial crops.
The groundwater recharge in a region depends mainly on the precipitation change during the major recharge season. This time was used for field reconnaissance. Home Logout from institutional account. It should be noted that no volume change in soil is considered during the infiltration process. We can determine the depth of penetration of the solute using the following equation: Nitrogen transport and fate in European streams, rivers, lakes and wetlands B.
In order to consider rainwater for plants and for groundwater as parts of a sequence, it is important to have a mental picture of its journey. This can lead to a greater number of sinkholes being reported. This is particularly likely to occur on soils that have deficient drainage, or are difficult to till in a dry state without pulverizing because of their very hard consistence e. As in Hong Kong, most sliding body materials are noncohesive soil with good permeability, so slope occurrences have close relevance with high intensity and short-time rainfall. A large amount of statistical data shows that most of landslides occur after a rainfall or during a rainfall. Florida suffers from two main culprits causing the sinkholes: